Graded Discussions

APA format is not just a formatting procedure for reports and research. APA must be used on all written documents, including the course discussions and assignments. It allows the writer to use outside references to support his or her answers. In all cases, students’ work should represent their original views and understandings of material. Use NO MORE THAN 20% outside resources to support your positions.

APA has two components that apply to all writing submissions. These are documenting outside sources used within the text itself (in-text), and documenting the original source at the end of the written assignment (end-of-text references).

In-text citations require the use of parenthetical references. That is, after you use a direct, indirect, or paraphrased source as support for your claims, you must cite the author(s)’ last name and year of publication in parenthesis after the reference. If it is a direct quote, in addition to using quotation marks, you must also include the page or paragraph number where you found it.

Example of in-text citation in APA format:

“One significant contextual challenge for the international manager is the cultural environment and how it affects business” (Griffin, 2012, p. 49).

At the end of your discussion, you must give the reader the full information on the source, so he or she can find the original document or book.

Example of end-of-text reference –for a book with one author– in APA format (This is found on separate Reference page in a report; at the end of the discussion, simply space down and begin with the heading “Reference”):


Griffin, R. W. (2012). Fundamentals of management. (6th ed.). Mason, OH: South- Western Cengage Learning.

Note the use of capitals in the titles.




Developing Leaders



Jack Welch, the former CEO of General Electric of 20 years, respected business leader and writer proposes ten fundamental leadership principles (from his 2001 book ‘Jack: Straight From The Gut’):

  1. There is only one way – the straightway. It sets the tone of the organization.
  2. Be open to the best of what everyone, everywhere, has to offer; transfer learning across your organization.
  3. Get the right people in the right jobs – it is more important than developing a strategy.
  4. An informal atmosphere is a competitive advantage.
  5. Make sure everybody counts and everybody knows they count.
  6. Legitimate self-confidence is a winner – the true test of self-confidence is the courage to be open.
  7. Business has to be fun – celebrations energize an organization.
  8. Never underestimate the other guy.
  9. Understand where real value is added and put your best people there.
  10. Know when to meddle and when to let go – this is pure instinct.

Select several of the principles above and provide some examples (career, family, relationship, etc.). Do you feel the principles listed above are accurate? What would you add to this list?

Start a New Thread


Please Select at least 6


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