Write a 16 pages paper on essential questions for viruses. During infection, viral proteins attached to host surface receptor molecules which are proteins. These receptor proteins are coded by genes that show variability in a population. Gene variations account for the varying susceptibility to viral infections among different individuals.

The host cell surface needs the receptor protein to which the viral surface protein attaches and thus gains access to the host cell. The host cell nucleus is the site where viral DNA duplicates and the capsid proteins are imported into nucleus for assembly. Packaging of the viral particle occurs in the cytoplasm of the host cell.

7. Describe the process of infection by animal viruses. You should be able to do this for DNA viruses and the four types of RNA viruses described in the lecture. The basic outline of steps includes attachment, penetration, uncoating, expression of viral genes, replication of viral genomes, packaging/maturation, and release.

d) Biosynthesis: DNA viruses start with transcription whereas RNA viruses proceed to translation if it is a + plus strand. Viral DNA is replicated in the host nucleus and capsid proteins are imported into the nucleus for assembly.

In the case of infection by a DNA virus, the first step of biosynthesis is the transcription of viral genes and in the case of RNA viruses with a + strand, translation is the first step. For RNA viruses with a minus-strand RNA is processed before translation.

Retroviral DNA may sometimes disrupt host genes, such mutations may lead to malignancies like cancer. It is postulated that this kind of genetic shift or mutation is responsible for evolutionary changes. It is also found to be a powerful tool for gene therapy.

In retroviral infection, the viral RNA produces ss DNA, which is transported to the nucleus and integrates as a provirus. This provirus is capable of dividing indefinitely along with the host DNA as in the case of the lysogenic conversion, where a viral genome integrates to the host chromosome.


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